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Ancient Egypt

Timeline and Important Archaeological Sites and Issues of Ancient Egypt


Great Pyramid at Giza

Great Pyramid at Giza

Joanne and Matt

Ancient Egypt is considered to have begun about 3050 BC, when the first pharaoh Menes united Lower Egypt (referring to the river delta region of the Nile River), and Upper Egypt (everything south of the delta).

Thereafter the civilization had three flowerings, called by historians the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms, interrupted by mini-dark ages, called Intermediate Periods, when Egypt was temporarily conquered by opposing empires.


Neolithic (9,000-4,000 BC)

Predynastic Egypt

  • Lower Egypt 7000-2950 BC
  • Upper Egypt 4500-2950 BC

Early Period, 1st-2nd Dynasties, 2950-2575 BC

Old Kingdom Egypt, 3rd-6th Dynasties, about 2575-2150 BC

First Intermediate Period, 7th-10th Dynasties, 2125-1975 BC (alternate: 2160-2055 BC)

Middle Kingdom Egypt, 11th-13th Dynasties, 1975 or 2055-1640 BC

Second Intermediate, 14th-17th Dynasties, 1630-1520 BC

New Kingdom, 18th-20th Dynasties, 1539-1075 BC

Third Intermediate, 21st-24th Dynasties, 1075-715 BC

  • Tanis
  • the Silver Pharaoh

Late Period, 25th-30th Dynasties, 715-332 BC

Ptolemaic Period, 25th-30th Dynasties, 332-30 BC

Roman Period, 31st and 32nd Dynasties, 30 BC-AD 395

The history of Egypt was divided into Dynasties about 280 BC, when the priest Manetho compiled a list of the pharaohs of Egypt and grouped the ancient rulers into 30 dynasties. Later historians grouped the dynasties into 'Kingdoms' and 'Intermediate Periods.'

Issues in Ancient Egyptology


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