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Bone, Ivory, and Shell

The study of animal bone and ivory as it was used for tools and decorative objects in the past.

Ancient Flutes
Flutes are among the earliest evidence of modern behavior: music making. Several European Upper Paleolithic sites contain flutes made of animal bone and mammoth ivory.

Shell Middens in Archaeology
What's for dinner? Archaeological studies of shell middens

The Antler Finds at Bilzingsleben
A study of over 2,000 antler artifacts recovered from the Lower Palaeolithic site of Bilzingsleben, Thuringia, Germany; an article in Internet Archaeology by Jürgen Vollbrecht. German and English.

Celtic Fibulae
An introduction to these pre-Roman and Gallo-Roman brooches, from Laurent Tiphaine.

Conservation of Bone, Ivory, Teeth, and Antler
From Donny Hamilton's Conservation Manual for a course in nautical archaeology at Texas A&M.

Dental Microwear Page
From Peter Ungar at the University of Arkansas, photographs, discussion, and a software program to download.

Spondylus is a bivalve mollusc known as the "thorny oyster" and in South America and the eastern Mediterranean, they held an important significance to the ancient cultures of those regions.

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