A codex (plural codices) is the technical name for an ancient book or manuscript, specifically one that was published before Joseph Gutenberg's invention and popularization of the printing press in the mid-15th century. The most famous codices are those of the Mesoamerican civilizations, including the Maya and Aztec codexes.
The photo on this page is that of a facsimile of the Aztec Codex Borbonicus, a compilation of monthly celebrations, painted with natural materials on amatl bark paper. The original is at the Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée Nationale, Paris; this facsimile is on display at the Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico. You can get your own copy from Mesoamerican Heritage Institute via this link from the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc.
This glossary entry is part of the Dictionary of Archaeology.