Dura-Europos is the name of a Greek colony on the Euphrates River near the modern town of Salhiyé in Syria, and the site of the earliest known Jewish diaspora synagogue. First occupied by the Babylonians, Dura-Europos was built as a military outpost by the Seleucids about 300 BC. About 100 BC it was captured by the Parthians, and then in AD 165, it was annexed by Rome. It was destroyed by the Sassanids in 256 AD.
The site was recorded by James Henry Breasted during World War I and excavated in the 1930s by Franz Cumont and Michael Rostovtzeff. Since the mid-1980s, excavations at the site have been conducted under the aegis of CNRS, led by Pierre Leriche.