The Jomon is the name of the early Holocene period hunter-gatherers of Japan, beginning about 14,000 BC and ending about 1000 BC in southwestern Japan and AD 500 in northeastern Japan. The Jomon made stone and bone tools, and pottery beginning at a few sites as early as 15,500 BP. The word Jomon means 'cord pattern', and it refers to the cord-marked impressions seen on Jomon pottery.
- Incipient Jomon (14,000-8000 BC) (Fukui Cave, Odai Yamamoto I)
- Initial Jomon (8000-4800 BC) (Natsushima)
- Early Jomon (ca 4800-3000 BC) (Hamanasuno, Tochibara Rockshelter, Sannai Maruyama, Torihama Shell Mound)
- Middle Jomon (ca 3000-2000 BC) (Sannai Maruyama, Usujiri)
- Late Jomon (ca. 2000-1000 BC) (Hamanaka 2)
- Final (1000-100 BC) (Kamegaoka)
- Epi-Jomon (100 BC-AD 500) (Sapporo Eki Kita-Guchi)
The Early and Middle Jomon lived in hamlets or villages of semi-subterranean pit houses, excavated up to about one meter into the earth. By the late Jomon period and perhaps as a response to climate change and a lowering of sea levels, the Jomon moved into fewer villages sited mainly on the coastlines and there relied increasingly on river and ocean fishing, and shell fish. The Jomon diet was based on a mixed economy of hunting, gathering and fishing, with some evidence for gardens with millet, and possibly gourd, buckwheat, and azuki bean.
The earliest pottery forms of the Jomon were low-fired, round and pointed-based forms, created during the Initial period. Flat-based pottery characterized the Early Jomon period. Cylindrical pots are characteristic of northeastern Japan, and similar styles are known on mainland China, which may or may not suggest direct contact. By the Middle Jomon period, a variety of jars, bowls, and other vessels were in use.
The Jomon have been the focus of much debate concerning the invention of pottery. Scholars today debate whether pottery was a local invention or diffused from the mainland; by 12,000 BC low-fired pottery was in use throughout East Asia. Fukui Cave has radiocarbon dates ca. 15,800-14,200 calibrated years BP on associated charcoal, but Xianrendong Cave in mainland China so far holds the oldest pottery vessels discovered on the planet, by perhaps a thousand years or so. Other sites such as Odai Yamomoto in Aomori prefecture have been found to date the same period as Fukui Cave, or somewhat older.
Jomon Burials and Earthworks
Jomon earthworks are noted by end of the Late Jomon period, consisting of stone circles around cemetery plots, such as at Ohyo. Circular spaces with earthen walls up to several meters high and up to 10 meters thick at the base were built at several sites such as Chitose. These burials were often layered with red ochre and were accompanied by polished stone staffs which may represent rank.
By the Late Jomon period, evidence for ritual activities is noted at sites by elaborate grave goods such as masks with goggle eyes and anthropomorphic figurines accompanying burials placed in ceramic pots. By the Final period, farming of barley, wheat, millet and hemp developed, and the Jomon lifestyle diminished all over the region by AD 500.
Scholars debate whether the Jomon were related to the modern Ainu hunter-gatherers of Japan. Genetic studies suggest that they are likely biologically related to the Jomon, but the Jomon culture is not expressed within modern Ainu practices. The known archaeological correlate of the Ainu is called the Satsumon culture, who are believed to have displaced the epi-Jomon about AD 500; Satsumon may be a descendant of the Jomon rather than a replacement.
Important SitesSannai Maruyama, Fukui Cave, Usujiri, Chitose, Ohyu, Kamegaoka, Natsushima, Hamanasuno
See the Walking Tour of Sannai Maruyama for a close up look at this enormous Jomon village.
Thanks to Gary W. Crawford for assistance with this timeline.
An excellent source of more information is Charles Kealley's pages on Japanese archaeology.
A Jomon Bibliography has been created for this project.
Choy K, and Richards M. 2010. Isotopic evidence for diet in the Middle Chulmun period: a case study from the Tongsamdong shell midden, Korea. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 2(1):1-10.
Crawford, Gary. 1996. Jomon tradition, in Brian Fagan (ed). 1996. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Crawford, Gary. in press. Geographic Overviews, Asia (East)/Prehistoric Hunter-Fisher-Gatherers Low-Level Food Producers of the Japanese Archipelago: The Jomon. Encyclopedia of Archaeology, Deborah Pearsall, editor. Elsevier, London.
Habu J, Matsui A, Yamamoto N, and Kanno T. 2011. Shell midden archaeology in Japan: Aquatic food acquisition and long-term change in the Jomon culture. Quaternary International 239(1-2):19-27.
Hall, Mark E. 2004. Pottery production during the Late Jomon period: insights from the chemical analyses of Kasori B pottery. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:1439-1450
Sakaguchi, Takashi. 2007. Refuse patterning and behavioral analysis in a pinniped hunting camp in the Late Jomon Period: A case study in layer V at the Hamanaka 2 site, Rebun Island, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 26(1):28-46.
This glossary entry is part of the Dictionary of Archaeology.