At the foot of the Guadalupe Mountains within sight of the tallest mountain in Texas and between two cold, carbonate streams lie the archaeological ruins of the Pine Springs Camp, a key site to understanding both sides of the Apache Wars of the late 19th century. The term Apache Wars refers to a series of skirmishes carried on during the United States expansion into the traditional tribal lands of the Native American Apache tribes and their allies.
The interlaced record of these Apache and military activities has been the subject of archaeological research at Pine Springs Camp since the 1970s.
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