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Warriors Project Archaeology

Buffalo Soldiers, Apaches, and the Archaeology of the Apache War


At the foot of the Guadalupe Mountains within sight of the tallest mountain in Texas and between two cold, carbonate streams lie the archaeological ruins of the Pine Springs Camp, a key site to understanding both sides of the Apache Wars of the late 19th century. The term Apache Wars refers to a series of skirmishes carried on during the United States expansion into the traditional tribal lands of the Native American Apache tribes and their allies.

The interlaced record of these Apache and military activities has been the subject of archaeological research at Pine Springs Camp since the 1970s.

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Overview of the excavations at Pine Springs CampThe Apache Wars in Texas10th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers at CampHistory of the Buffalo SoldiersApache Rancheria History of the Apaches in TexasRock concentration/military campfire (Texas Archaeological Society Field School, 1970Texas Archaeological Society Field School, 1970
Sentry Post Overlooking Pine Springs CampNational Park Service Excavations at Pine Springs CampAerial view of Guadalupe Mountains National Park and Pine Springs CampWarriors Project Excavations at Pine Springs CampArchaeological Map of Pine Springs CampMapping Features at Pine Springs CampMilitary Features at Pine Springs CampUS Military Features
Apache Features at Pine Springs CampApache Features at Pine Springs CampScouting Journal Entry, 1877. 2nd Lieutenant Charles Ayres, 10th CavalryArchaeology's Role in Historical Events Warriors Project Field Crew 2006Bibliography of the Mescalero-Buffalo Soldiers Archaeological ProjectWagon Road to Upper Pine SpringsApache Wars Bibliography
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