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Pre-Clovis Archaeological Sites

All of the sites in North and South America that date prior to 12,000 BC or earlier are called pre-Clovis, and most are problematic, but that doesn't mean we shouldn't think about them. Here is a collection of pre-clovis sites that are worth consideration.

Manis Mastodon
The Manis Mastodon site is a pre-clovis site in Washington State, where evidence that preclovis dined on megafauna has been identified,

Debra L. Friedkin Site (Texas)
The Debra L. Friedkin site, reported in Science in March 2011, is located on Buttermilk Creek in Texas.

Monte Verde Photo Essay
Monte Verde is an archaeological site, located in southern Chile, on an inland estuary 55 kilometers west of the current Pacific coastline.

Cactus Hill (VA)
Cactus Hill is a buried multicomponent site on the Nottaway River of Virginia, with archaic, Clovis and, below the Clovis and separated by sterile sand, an apparent Pre-Clovis occupation.

Guitarrero Cave (Peru)
Guitarrero Cave contains evidence of human occupations beginning at least 10,000 years ago, and perhaps as early as 12,500 years ago.

Manis Mastodon Site (USA)
The Manis Mastodon site is a possible Clovis or preclovis mastodon butchery site located on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state in the northwestern United States.

Meadowcroft Rockshelter (USA)
Meadowcroft Rockshelter was one of the first archaeological sites in the United States to contain evidence of pre-Clovis populations, and as such it has always been controversial.

Monte Verde (Chile)
Monte Verde is Southern Chile's addition to the problem of when was the earliest settlement of the American continent.

Monte Verde: The Starting Gun Fires
The site of Monte Verde, Chile, excavated by Tom Dillehay, brought the Clovis/Preclovis debate to the forefront by being the first widely accepted site predating 11,200 BP. This page contains links to articles on the continuing debate.

Pedra Furada (Brazil)
The archaeological site of Pedra Furada, Brazil, is a stratified rockshelter with a very early (and hence contested) date, a Paleoindian occupation, and some ancient cave art dated between 5000 and 11000 years BP

Topper (SC)
The Topper Site blew the lid off the Clovis First argument, although the site's dates are still controversial.

Topper Site (South Carolina)
From Mark McConaughy, a page on supposedly preclovis Topper site, based on the paper given at the Southeastern Clovis Conference in 2005.

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