Arrowheads are the most easily identified of archaeological artifacts. Most people in the world recognize an arrowhead when they see one: a stone object which has been deliberately chipped to be pointy on one end. Whether they've personally collected them from nearby farmlands, seen them in museum displays or just watched them being shot into people in John Wayne movies, most people know the triangular tips of arrow shafts called arrowheads are the remnants of a prehistoric hunting trip, the spent shotgun shells of the past. But not all arrowheads are equal; and not all sharpened stone points are arrowheads.
Arrowheads versus Projectile Points
Archaeologists typically call what regular people call arrowheads "projectile points," not because it sounds more academic, but because stone, wood, bone, antler, copper, and other raw material types were used to put sharp points on the ends of all kinds of projectiles, not just arrows. The purpose of projectile points has always been both hunting and warfare, but the technology has varied a great deal over the ages.
The technology that made the first stone points possible was invented by our distant ancestor Homo erectus in Africa during the later Acheulean period, circa 400,000-200,000 years ago. This technology involved knocking bits of stone off a hunk of rock to create a sharp point; and archaeologists call this technique the Levallois technique or Levalloisian flaking industry.
Middle Stone Age Innovations
During the Mousterian period of the Middle Paleolithic beginning around 166,000 years ago, Levalloisian flake tools were refined by our Neanderthal cousins and became quite numerous. It is during this period that stone tools were probably first attached to spears. They were almost certainly attached to the end of a long shaft, and used to help hunt big mammals for food, either by hurling the spear at the animal, or by thrusting it into the animal at close range.
The next great leap in hunting technology was made by Homo sapiens and occurred during the Solutrean part of the Upper Paleolithic period, about 21,000 to 17,000 years ago. Known for great artistry in stone point production (including the delicate but effective willow leaf point), the Solutrean people are also probably responsible for the introduction of the atlatl or throwing stick. The atlatl is a sophisticated combination tool, formed out of a short dart with a point socketed into a longer shaft. A leather strap hooked at the far end allowed the hunter to fling the atlatl over her shoulder, the pointed dart flying off in a deadly and accurate manner, from a safe distance.
By the way, the word atlatl (pronounced either "at-ul at-ul" or "aht-lah-tul") is the Aztec word for the throwing stick; when Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes landed on the eastern shore of Mexico in the 16th century AD he was greeted by atlatl-wielding individuals..
True Arrowheads: The Invention of the Bow and Arrow
The bow and arrow, a rather more familiar technological innovation to fans of John Wayne movies, also dates to the Upper Paleolithic. All three types of hunting, the spear, the atlatl, and the bow and arrow, are used today by sportsmen around the world, practicing what our ancestors used on a daily basis.