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Archaeology: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
What Does A.D. Mean, Anyway?
The initials A.D. (used with or without periods) is an abbreviation for the Latin
What Is History, Anyway? A Handful of...
Drop in on a collection of quotes from historians--some professional, some decidedly not--trying their hand at defining the dark art of history.
What is the Evidence for a 6th Century Fog...
The dust veil of AD 536 was a period of a year to 18 months when the world experienced some kind of calamity, and historic records and dendrochronological records from around the world hold the evidence.
When Did People Begin Using and Controlling Fire?
The discovery of fire was one of the earliest discoveries of humans. Fire's purposes are multiple, some of which are to add light and heat, to cook plants and animals, to clear forests for planting, to heat-treat stone for making stone tools, to burn clay for ceramic objects.
What Science Has Learned about the House of the...
The House of the Faun is among the most visited of the domestic ruins at Pompeii, famous for its mosaics and its bronze statue of a dancing faun.
Where Was the Ancient City of Babylon?
The archaeological site of Babylon was the capital of a small city state of Mesopotamia, named Babylonia, located in what is now Iraq, near the modern town of Hilla.
What Was It Like to Wander the Streets of the...
The streets of Pompeii are fascinating examples of Roman construction.
Why Don't Archaeologists Use the Term...
Cro-Magnons are what scholars now call Anatomically Modern Humans or Early Modern Humans, mostly because Cro-Magnon refers to to a specific archaeological site which isn't really typical of the rest
Here's How Cattle Came to Be Domesticated -...
The history of the relationship between humans and cattle is a long and varied one, with at least two and perhaps three domestication events.
What Does the Abbreviation 'BP' Stand for in...
Archaeologists use the term 'BP' to mean 'years before humans began to screw up the atmosphere by testing nuclear devices'.
The 10 Most Important Aztec Gods and Goddesses
Learn more about the most important Aztec gods and and the religion of the Aztec people
What Can Archaeology Tell Us About Who Aryans...
The Aryan Invasion Myth was developed in the late 19th century to explain the blossoming of the Indus River Civilization; but it stems from a flawed argument and old fashioned racist supremacism.
How the Dog Came to Be Domesticated
When and where the partnership of dog and humans first occurred is currently under considerable debate.
Interested in a Career in Archaeology? Read...
Have you always dreamed of being an archaeologist, but don't know how to become one? To become an archaeologist takes education, reading, training, and persistence. Here's how you can get started exploring that dream job
Is Your Cat Truly Domesticated? According to...
The modern day cat was permanently domesticated about 4000 years ago, in Egypt; but archaeologists say it may have been closer to 10,000 years ago.
The Collapse of Angkor
The end of the Khmer Empire (or Angkor civilization) came about as a direct result of the civilization's inability to adapt to an extended drought brought about by climate change.
Animal Domestication: When and Where It First...
Domestication is the process of genetically adapting an animal or plant to better suit the needs of human beings; this page includes a definition of domestication and a table of domestication dates for animals in the world.
Out of Africa Hypothesis
The Out of Africa or African Replacement Hypothesis argues that every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa.
How Did Gulf Coast Scarlet Macaws Get to Chaco...
The scarlet macaw was an exotic creature in the American Southwest, appearing no later than 1000 AD. How it got there is a continuing mystery.
What Is a Hominin and How Is It Different from...
Learn more about the Homininae subfamily, including Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).
Myth-busting About Arrowheads
Arrowheads are often the subject of a number of myths, legends and misconceptions; here is a description of the top myths and the top unknown facts.
The Long History of Humans Taming Plants on...
A collection of plant histories, when and where humans domesticated them, with a table of dates and places and links to the stories themselves.
Did the First American Colonists Come from the...
The Beringian Standstill Hypothesis argues that the earliest American colonists were stranded on a now-submerged land mass near the Bering Strait.
What Genius Culture First Thought of Fermenting...
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes; and may have been invented nearly 9,000 years ago in China....
What You've Always Wanted to Know about Otzi...
The Iceman is the name of a 5,300-year-old human body discovered high in the Swiss/Italian Alps in 1991.
A Beginner's Guide to the Stone Age
A definition and chronology of the Stone Age (more commonly known to scholars as the Paleolithic era), which in human prehistory is the name given to the period between about 2.5 million and 20,000 years ago.
Sibudu Cave (South Africa)
Sibudu Cave is an extremely important Middle Stone Age (MSA) rockshelter located on the Tongati River near the KwaZulu coast of South Africa.
Here's How Chickens Became Domesticated
The history of chickens and when they were domesticated is something of a puzzle, but most likely it was about 8,000 years ago in Thailand.
Considering a Career in Archaeology? Read These...
What kind of job can I get in archaeology? Does it pay well? Do you have to work when it's hot? These are the questions that everyone who is thinking about being an archaeologist wants to know.
Were the Hanging Gardens of Babylon really in...
Secrets of the Dead: the Lost Gardens of Babylon from public television discusses the somewhat controversial theories from Stephanie Dalley about the whereabouts of the missing Ancient Wonder of the World
What Alchemy Did it Take to Make Medieval...
Damascus steel, the legendary steel blade scimitar of the Islamic side in the Crusades, was a formidable piece of weaponry for the middle ages. Modern science has given us new insights into how this iron metal was forged, and why this useful technology became lost.
The Origins of Agriculture Around the World
The history of farming begins some 12,000 years ago, in the hilly flanks of the Zagros Mountains of southwest Asia
Ohalo II (Israel)
Ohalo II is the name of a submerged late Upper Paleolithic (Kebaran) site located on the southwest shore of the Sea of Galilee.
What is the Evidence for Polynesian-Precolumbia...
Several strands of evidence suggest, but by no means conclude, that there may have been pre-columbian contact between the cultures of Polynesia and South or Central America
Who doesn't want to be an archaeologist when...
What kind of real-life career choices do I have with a degree in archaeology?
If You Could be a Viking, Would You Be a...
Viking society was highly stratified, with three distinct classes, from slave to aristocracy; and clearly defined professions that described life.
The Secret Innovations and Inventions of...
Ancient farming methods used by farmers throughout the world varied quite a bit. Farmers developed many ways to maintain soils, ward off frost and freeze cycles and protect their crops from animals. On this page you'll find core concept definitions, articles on examples of archaeological research into ancient farming, detailed examination of some special farming techniques and bibliographies of related topics.
What was Life in Europe Like Before Farming?
The Mesolithic period in European history includes the history of the complex hunter-gatherers who developed the technology to cultivate crops.
Who Were the First People Who Arrived in the...
Pre-Clovis is the name archaeologists have given to the oldest and now fairly well-established human occupations of the Americas.
What You Need to Know About the Early Stone Age
The Lower Paleolithic period (2.7 million to 200,000 years ago) is the first archaeology, that is to say, that period when the first evidence of what scientists consider human behaviors occurred.
Aztec Origins
This page describes the mythical and archaeological origins of the Aztec people, and the founding of their capital city of Tenochtitlán
Scarlet Macaw's Brilliant Feathers and...
The scarlet macaw's vibrant plumage was used in Mesoamerican societies far outside the bird's natural range on the central American gulf coast.
Great Zimbabwe, the Great Stone House of the...
Great Zimbabwe is an important African Iron Age site, one of hundreds of such sites in Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa dated between the 10th and 15th centuries AD.
Main Scientific Theories about When and How the...
Scientists are sure that the original colonists of the Americas arrived at least 15,000 years ago--but how they got there is still under debate.
The Legend of the Aztec God of War and Sacrifice
Huitzilopochtli, the Aztec god of war and sacrifice, learn more about Aztec mythology and religion
What Society Cultivated Wheat First?
Wheat was one of the very first crops domesticated by our ancestors, some 10,000 years ago in southeastern Turkey.
Natufian Period
The Natufian culture is the name given to the sedentary hunter-gatherers living in the Levant region of the near east between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago.
How Ancient Civilizations Used Bitumen (AKA Tar)
Bitumen is a naturally-occurring organic byproduct of decomposed organic materials used by humans for many very useful things for the past 40,000 years.
Wouldn't You Live in a House Made of Elephant...
In central Europe about 16,000 years ago, some stylish hunter gatherers built their houses out of ancient elephant bones. What a great idea!
10 Breathtaking Photos of Machu Picchu
The residential palace of the Inca king Pachacuti has drawn tourists from all over the world because of its lovely impossible location at the edge of the world. Gina Carey was at Machu Picchu during the Summer of 2004, and shares her photographs with us.
How the Water Management System in the Khmer...
The Khmer Empire, also known as the Angkor civilization, were compelled to manage water through a complex of man-made canals and reservoirs, the result of which was to permanently alter the local hydrology.
Angkor or Khmer Empire Ruled Southeast Asia...
The Angkor Civilization (or Khmer Civilization) is the name given to an important civilization of southeast Asia, including all of Cambodia and southeastern Thailand and northern Vietnam
Was the Upper Paleolithic the Height of...
The Upper Paleolithic period saw great changes in the world as Homo sapiens became the only hominid running around on our planet.
Clovis May Not Have Been First in the Americas,...
Clovis refers to mobile big game hunters who roamed the Americas hunting elephants and bison for a very brief time 12,000 years ago.
When was the Common Bean Domesticated? And Who...
The common bean comes in a multitude of colors shapes and sizes, and as you've no doubt been told, they're really good for you. They are an American domesticate, and their domestication history is an interesting one...
Tunnels, Bridges, Rest Stops and Shrines Along...
The Inca trail system was an essential part of the success of the Inca Empire, which included an estimated 40,000 kilometers of road way
Did Amelia Earhart Crashland on a Pacific...
The TIGHAR project searching for traces of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan was begun in the 1980s, and the earliest archaeological investigations were focused on Nikumaroro island. Page 2.
Did the Aztecs Really Think Cortes was the...
The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, is one of the most famous pre-Columbian deity and his cult was widespread in many Mesoamerican cultures.
Why Would Anybody Try to Domesticate a Goat?
Beginning about 10,500 years ago, Neolithic people started keeping goats, for their milk, meat, dung, wool... but maybe not their sweet natures.
Ochre is the First Pigment Known to Have Been...
The natural yellow-red-brown pigment known as ochre was humankind's first paint pot, used by our hominid ancestors nearly 300,000 years ago.
Archaeology is the Study of ... What?
What is Archaeology? The study of archaeology has been defined in a number of silly and serious ways. Here's a collection of pithy quotes from archaeologists and non-archaeologists.
What Scientists Have Learned about the Ancient...
The avocado (Persea americana) is a plant domesticated by ancient Americans, discovered and cultivated in central Mexico perhaps 7,000 years ago.
The Very Opposite of Monocultural Agriculture...
Mixed cropping, also known as inter-cropping or co-cultivation, is a type of agriculture that involves planting two or more of plants simultaneously in the same field.
Top 10 Ancient American Civilizations
The continents of North and South America were 'discovered' by the European civilizations in the late 15th century AD, but their civilizations were vast and complex long before the first European landed. The following are a taste of the complexity of the civilizations of ancient America.
Why is an Ancient Trash Pit an Archaeologist's...
A midden is the archaeological term for a trash heap, including food stuff and broken crockery; exhausted stone and metal tools; organic matter and sometimes burials.
How the Kingdom of Aksum Flourished in Ethiopia
The Kingdom of Aksum (first through sixth centuries AD) was one of the most powerful kingdoms in sub-Saharan Africa, connecting the Roman empire and the rest of the world in the region of the Red Sea.
Thousands of Years of Sunday Afternoons Wasted
The history of board games is at least 4500 years old, as combined religious rite, divination aid, political ploy, and a way to pass an idle Sunday afternoon.
Aztec Religion
The Aztecs had a complex set of beliefs, ceremonies and gods, each one overlooking an aspect of human life...
100,000 Year Old Paint Pots at Blombos Cave
Blombos Cave is an important key to understand the beginnings of early modern behaviors: the latest discoveries there of tool kits for making pigment are detailed in this photo essay.
The Oldest Known Board Game in the World is...
The board game called 20 squares is an ancient game similar to backgammon, invented at least 4500 years ago in the Bronze Age Mediterranean region.
The Types and Characteristics of Ancient...
Monumental architecture refers to large man-made structures of stone or earth.
Beautiful Reconstruction Drawings of the Murals...
Although known to the local Lacandon Maya people, Bonampak's mural paintings were first seen by non-Maya eyes in the early 20th century
Chalcolithic
The Chalcolithic is the name given to the period in the Near East and Europe after the Neolithic and before the Bronze Age, between about 4500 and 3500 BC.
What Has Science Learned about the History of...
The eggplant domestication history is a mysterious one, that scholars have yet to figure out.
What do silk worms have to do with silk?
The use of the silk worm species Bombyx to produce cloth was invented at least as early as the Longshan period (3500-2000 BC), and perhaps earlier.
What Science Knows about the Culture and...
The rulers of the Inca Empire were known known as the 'capac', and there are 12 known leaders of the Inca Empire, led by the founder Manco Capac. Page 2.
Ancient Life in the Western Sahara Desert
Excavations at the site of Gobero in the Tenere Desert in West African Niger have provided scholars with a look into the climatic changes of the vast Sahara Desert.
What killed the ancient mammals in the last Ice...
At the end of the last ice age (ca 15,000-10,000 years ago), 85 percent of the large mammals (called megafauna) went extinct.
The Amazing History of American Corn
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The New Seven Wonders of the World
A quick photo tour of the new seven wonders of the world--plus some extras that readers say should be in there, too.
Why Did Shihuangdi Need a Terracotta Army?
The exquisite terracotta army of the first Qin Dynasty ruler Shihuangdi represents the emperor’s ability to control the resources of the newly unified China, and his attempt to recreate and maintain that empire in the afterlife.
Did European Solutrean Upper Paleolithic People...
The Solutrean-Clovis connection suggests that at least some of the first people in North America were direct descendants of European Solutreans.
Astrophyicist David Dearborn Discusses His Work...
An interview with David Dearborn, on his research at the interface between astronomy and archaeology.
Cultural Evolution
Cultural evolution is the theory that culture changes over time as an adaptive response to stimulus.
A Thousand Years of African Kingdoms and the...
In Africa, unlike the Europe and Asia, the Iron Age is not prefaced by a Bronze or Copper Age, but rather all the metals came at once.
Sacred Cenote (Well of the Sacrifices)
Chichen Itza - Sacred Cenote - A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 19.
High Altitude Sacrifice of Children in the Inca...
The capacocha ceremony is the name of an Incan ritual, that included child sacrifice and burial in the high altitude mountains of the vast Inca Empire.
Who were the human species known as the...
The Denisovans are a recently discovered human species, who lived (at least) in what is today Siberia and colonized the southeast Asian islands and China.
What Culture First Domesticated the Cotton Plant?
Refer to this page to learn more about the origin of cotton domestication and cultivation
Artifacts of the Royal Cemetery of Ur
A collection of artifacts from C. Leonard Woolley's excavations of the Royal Cemetery at Ur, and the collection at the University of Pennsylvania's Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
BC (or B.C.)
The term B.C. is used by nearly everyone in the United States to mean dates in the Julian Calendar before the birth of Christ, or at least before the date once thought to be that of Christ's birth (the year 0).
Harappa (Pakistan)
Harappa is a large city of the Indus Civilization, and one of the best known sites in Pakistan, located on the bank of the Ravi River in Punjab Province.
A Beginner's Introduction to the Islamic...
The Islamic Civilization is in reality a mosaic of wide variety of cultures, from North Africa to the western periphery of the Pacific Ocean, and from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa.
A Beginner's Guide to the Persian Empire
At its height about 500 BC, the Persian empire had conquered Asia as far as the Indus River, Greece, and North Africa including what is now Egypt and Libya.
What Occurred During the Middle Paleolithic...
The Middle Paleolithic period (ca 200,000 to 45,000 years ago or so) is the period during which Archaic humans including Homo sapiens neanderthalensis appeared and flourished all over the world.
The Bering Land Bridge: Peopling America, and...
The Bering Land Bridge allowed human population into the Americas some 15,000 years ago: and scholars suggest it may partly regulate global climates.
How Hunter-Gatherers Lived Off the Land
Hunter gatherers is the name anthropologists have given to people who rely on a combined living of hunting game and gathering root vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Hunting and gathering was the lifestyle of all human beings until the invention of agriculture about 8000 years ago; and, to state it simply, hunter-gatherers hunt game and collect plant foods.
What Was Egypt Like Before the Pharaohs?
The Predynastic period in Egypt is the name archaeologists have given to the three millennia before the emergence of the first unified Egyptian state society.
Tlaloc, the Aztec Rain God
Tlaloc, the rain god, was one of the most important gods in Aztec religion
The Invention of Atlatls: 20,000 Years of...
The atlatl is a sophisticated combination hunting tool or weapon, formed out of a short dart with a point socketed into a longer shaft.
How Norwegian Settlers Built Houses in 19th...
Dugouts were a kind of housing used by European pioneers as first homes as they established their farmsteads in the northern middle west of the United States.
History of Shoes
Shoes are the use of typically organic materials (cloth, plant matter, wood, leather) to protect our feet, and they were likely invented some 40,000 years ago.
The Agave Plant: One of America's First Textile...
Agave Americana (also called maguey) is an plant used throughout Mesoamerica as fiber for clothing and textiles and to produce alcoholic beverages.
Pharaoh Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri
Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri (also spelled Deir el-Bahari) is one of the most beautiful temples in Egypt, built by the architects of Queen Hatshepsut, a pharaoh of the New Kingdom.
How Long Have Horses Been Our Pards?
The history of the domesticated horse (Equus caballus) is complex, the results of the spread of this marvelous creature throughout the world.
The Three Sisters: Ancient Conservation Farming...
The Three Sisters were what Native American groups called the combined intercropping of maize, beans and squash. Recent scientific research has shown what a stroke of genius this combination was, on many health and environmental methods.
The Top Ten
Short list of the main facts and aspects of Aztec culture
Mehrgarh (Pakistan)
Mehrgarh is a Neolithic (7000-3200 BC) site on the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in south Asia.
Who were the Ancient Mississippians?
The Mississippian culture is what archaeologists call the precolumbian horticulturalists and mound builders, who were spread across the American midwest and southeast, between about AD 1000-1550.
Is the history of the Inca written in knotted...
The quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo) is the only known precolumbian information system in South America.
The ancient Inca controlled their empire just...
The Inca road system included some 25,000 miles of roads, bridges, tunnels and causeways: it was an essential part of the success of the Inca Empire.
How Could People Build Permanent Houses of Snow?
Snow houses were temporary residences and winter villages built by arctic peoples at least as long ago as 800 BC: although we can't really be sure.
The Sacred Cenote - Well of the Sacrifices
Chichen Itza - A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 20.
What Evidence is there for Norse Landings in...
Archaeological excavations in Newfoundland, Canada, reveal evidence of a failed Viking colony on the Atlantic shore of the American continent.
Why Were Guinea Pigs Domesticated? (Hint: Not...
Guinea pigs are small rodents domesticated about seven thousand years ago in South American Andes mountains primarily for food, and brought to Europe as pets in the 16th century.
Important Facts You Should Know About...
A few important facts about Neandertals, part of an intensive study guide about these human ancestors. Page 2.
Göbekli Tepe - Early Cult Center in Turkey
Gobekli Tepe is a fascinating cultic center, apparently shared by several Pre-Pottery Neolithic groups over 11,000 years ago.
Blombos Cave
Great strides in understanding the development of modern human beings are being taken at the very southern tip of Africa these days.
A Wealthy Mayan King's Tomb: Pakal the Great
The Temple of the Inscriptions at Palenque includes the funerary chamber of the great Maya ruler Pakal, is one of the most important discoveries of Pre-Columbian archaeology of all times.
What Did the Rosetta Stone Tell Us? Classic...
The Rosetta stone is a block of dark granite found in Egypt in 1799, that literally transformed modern understanding of 3,000 years of Egyptian history.
Learn All About the Ancient Mesopotamian City...
The Mesopotamian city of Ur, known as Tell al-Muqayyar, was an important Sumerian city state between about 2025-1738 BC.
Need Ideas for an Archaeology Paper? Try These...
The hardest thing a student does is pick a research paper topic. Archaeology, the study of a million years of human behavior, is an excellent starting place.
What archaeologists have learned about the Troy...
Hisarlik is the modern name for the ancient site of Troy, located in what is now Turkey.
The Terracotta Soldiers were Only a Part of the...
The emperor Shi Huangdi [246-210 BC] was the Tiger of Qin, the first emperor of China, who unified the warring states into one group; his tomb includes the fabulous terra cotta army.
Some of the Earliest Colonists to America...
The Pacific Coast Migration Model is a theory concerning the original colonization of the Americas that proposes that people entering the continents followed the Pacific coastline
Chaco Canyon: The Architectural Heart of the...
Chaco Canyon is one of the best known archaeological regions in North America: architectural beauty matched to the arid and forbidding landscape.
What Archaeologists Have Learned about the City...
Jericho (also called Tell es-Sultan) is the name of tell situated on an ancient lake bed plain in what is known as the West Bank, in the territory belonging to Palestine.
Coconut Domestication
The coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is an important crop for an enormous range of products, and its history is a fascinating one.
How Many Times Do You Need to Domesticate Sheep?
The sheep (Ovis aries) is one of the earliest animals ever domesticated, from the mouflon and more than 10,000 years ago.
An Aztec God of Fertility and Patron of Warriors
Tonatiuh (pronounced Toh-nah-tee-uh) was the Aztec sun god. This deity had both a positive and negative aspect.
Who Were the Vikings, Anyway?
The Vikings were a farming culture, who originated in Scandinavia about the 4th century AD, and began to spread out and conquer the Europe in the 9th century AD. They were mostly defeated or subsumed into other cultures by the 13th century AD.
10 Unknown Ancient Empires
Everyone knows of some ancient civilizations, either from World History classes in school, from books or films, or from television specials on the Discovery Channel, the BBC or Public Broadcasting. Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece, Ancient Egypt, all of these are covered again and again in our books, magazines, and television shows. But there are so many interesting, less well-known civilizations! Here's an admittedly biased selection of some of them and why they are not to be forgotten.
Tenochtitlan: How a City in a Swamp Became the...
The Aztec culture site called Tenochtitlan was located in a very peculiar place today, in a marsh in the middle of a lake surrounded by mountains--a place now called Mexico City.
What Connects Llamas and Alpacas, Vicunas and...
Llamas and alpacas are two different species of camel in South America, both domesticated in about the same location and time in the Andean highlands.
Chaac
Chaac, was the Mayan god of rain, water and lightning. His origins are very ancient and he was worshiped all over the Maya area...
What Else Does Science Know about the Makers of...
The Moche culture were a highly ritualized South American society, who lived along the arid coast of what is now Peru between 100 and 800 AD.
How Feudalism Affects Power and Farming in the...
Feudalism is a system of political organization, in which an elite individual called a lord controls several common people (vassals).
If You Were Waging a 100 Years War in the...
Arctic semi-subterranean housing was an important survival aspect of living in a cold and dangerous climate--and ongoing inter-tribal conflicts.
Pit Houses: Warm in the Winters and Cool in the...
A pit house (also spelled pithouse) is a type of dwelling that was excavated partly into the earth, from a few inches to more than three feet.
Olive Oil
The history of olive oil, how it was produced, who produced it and why, from the archaeological evidence.
When Was the Lovely Olive First Domesticated?
Olive history is complicated by the fact that the olive was domesticated at least nine times, the earliest beginning at least 8000 years ago.
Valley of the Kings (Egypt)
The Valley of the Kings is the name given to a long dry valley or wadi running parallel to the Nile River on the west bank opposite Luxor, Egypt.
History of Rice, Part One
Archaeology has traced the history of rice to nearly 12,000 years ago.
Arrowheads and Projectile Points
Arrowheads are the most identifiable archaeological artifact in the world. Whether they've personally collected them from nearby farmlands, seen them in museum displays or just watched them being shot into people in John Wayne movies, most people know the triangular tips of arrow shafts are the remnants of a hunting trip.
Folsom Culture
Folsom is the name given to early Paleoindian hunter-gatherers of the North American continent, ca. 9,000-10,500 years ago.
What is the first tool ever made by humans?
Acheulean handaxes are a type of stone tool made by our earliest hominid ancestors.
Aztec Creation Myth
The story of how the Aztecs believe world originated, passed down by oral tradition, incorporating gods and myths adopted and modified from other tribes.
Learn All About the Dating Techniques Used to...
A short course on the various dating methods used in archaeological science over the centuries. Part 1: Relative Dating
Indus Seals and the Indus Civilization Script
Recent investigation of seals from the ancient Indus Civilization suggest that the glyphs represent a full, as-yet-deciphered language.
Ozette, Olympic Peninsula, Washington
Ozette site, a North American Pompeii, Ozette buried village
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