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Archaeology: Most Popular Articles

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When Did People Begin Using and Controlling Fire?
The discovery of fire was one of the earliest discoveries of humans. Fire's purposes are multiple, some of which are to add light and heat, to cook plants and animals, to clear forests for planting, to heat-treat stone for making stone tools, to burn clay for ceramic objects.
What Does A.D. Mean, Anyway?
The initials A.D. (used with or without periods) is an abbreviation for the Latin
What Is History, Anyway? A Handful of...
Drop in on a collection of quotes from historians--some professional, some decidedly not--trying their hand at defining the dark art of history.
The 10 Most Important Aztec Gods and Goddesses
Learn more about the most important Aztec gods and and the religion of the Aztec people
El Sidrón (Spain)
El Sidron is an archaeological site in the Asturias region of northern Spain where the remains of at least 12 Neanderthals have been recovered.
Is Your Cat Truly Domesticated? According to...
The modern day cat was permanently domesticated about 4000 years ago, in Egypt; but archaeologists say it may have been closer to 10,000 years ago.
Where Was the Ancient City of Babylon?
The archaeological site of Babylon was the capital of a small city state of Mesopotamia, named Babylonia, located in what is now Iraq, near the modern town of Hilla.
What Can Archaeology Tell Us About Who Aryans...
The Aryan Invasion Myth was developed in the late 19th century to explain the blossoming of the Indus River Civilization; but it stems from a flawed argument and old fashioned racist supremacism.
Here's How Cattle Came to Be Domesticated -...
The history of the relationship between humans and cattle is a long and varied one, with at least two and perhaps three domestication events.
What Is a Hominin and How Is It Different from...
Learn more about the Homininae subfamily, including Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).
How the Dog Came to Be Domesticated
When and where the partnership of dog and humans first occurred is currently under considerable debate.
The Top Ten
Short list of the main facts and aspects of Aztec culture
The New Seven Wonders of the World
A quick photo tour of the new seven wonders of the world--plus some extras that readers say should be in there, too.
Animal Domestication: When and Where It First...
Domestication is the process of genetically adapting an animal or plant to better suit the needs of human beings; this page includes a definition of domestication and a table of domestication dates for animals in the world.
Why Don't Archaeologists Use the Term...
Cro-Magnons are what scholars now call Anatomically Modern Humans or Early Modern Humans, mostly because Cro-Magnon refers to to a specific archaeological site which isn't really typical of the rest
Interested in a Career in Archaeology? Read...
Have you always dreamed of being an archaeologist, but don't know how to become one? To become an archaeologist takes education, reading, training, and persistence. Here's how you can get started exploring that dream job
What You've Always Wanted to Know about Otzi...
The Iceman is the name of a 5,300-year-old human body discovered high in the Swiss/Italian Alps in 1991.
What Does the Abbreviation 'BP' Stand for in...
Archaeologists use the term 'BP' to mean 'years before humans began to screw up the atmosphere by testing nuclear devices'.
A Beginner's Guide to the Persian Empire
At its height about 500 BC, the Persian empire had conquered Asia as far as the Indus River, Greece, and North Africa including what is now Egypt and Libya.
Is the history of the Inca written in knotted...
The quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo) is the only known precolumbian information system in South America.
The Legend of the Aztec God of War and Sacrifice
Huitzilopochtli, the Aztec god of war and sacrifice, learn more about Aztec mythology and religion
What Genius Culture First Thought of Fermenting...
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes; and may have been invented nearly 9,000 years ago in China....
How the Kingdom of Aksum Flourished in Ethiopia
The Kingdom of Aksum (first through sixth centuries AD) was one of the most powerful kingdoms in sub-Saharan Africa, connecting the Roman empire and the rest of the world in the region of the Red Sea.
What Society Cultivated Wheat First?
Wheat was one of the very first crops domesticated by our ancestors, some 10,000 years ago in southeastern Turkey.
Pharaoh Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri
Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri (also spelled Deir el-Bahari) is one of the most beautiful temples in Egypt, built by the architects of Queen Hatshepsut, a pharaoh of the New Kingdom.
Out of Africa Hypothesis
The Out of Africa or African Replacement Hypothesis argues that every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa.
Here's How Chickens Became Domesticated
The history of chickens and when they were domesticated is something of a puzzle, but most likely it was about 8,000 years ago in Thailand.
Tenochtitlan: How a City in a Swamp Became the...
The Aztec culture site called Tenochtitlan was located in a very peculiar place today, in a marsh in the middle of a lake surrounded by mountains--a place now called Mexico City.
Learn All about Maya Civilization with This...
Facts about the economics, politics, warfare, rituals, architecture, and other interesting things to know about the Maya Civilization. Page 3.
The Long History of Humans Taming Plants on...
A collection of plant histories, when and where humans domesticated them, with a table of dates and places and links to the stories themselves.
The Types and Characteristics of Ancient...
Monumental architecture refers to large man-made structures of stone or earth.
Considering a Career in Archaeology? Read These...
What kind of job can I get in archaeology? Does it pay well? Do you have to work when it's hot? These are the questions that everyone who is thinking about being an archaeologist wants to know.
The Origins of Agriculture Around the World
The history of farming begins some 12,000 years ago, in the hilly flanks of the Zagros Mountains of southwest Asia
Aztec Origins
This page describes the mythical and archaeological origins of the Aztec people, and the founding of their capital city of Tenochtitlán
Here Are the Basic Facts and Timeline of the...
After classical Egypt, the first civilization in Africa was called Kush or Kushite, located on the third cataract of the Nile River in what is now the Sudan.
A Beginner's Guide to the Stone Age
A definition and chronology of the Stone Age (more commonly known to scholars as the Paleolithic era), which in human prehistory is the name given to the period between about 2.5 million and 20,000 years ago.
How Ancient Civilizations Used Bitumen (AKA Tar)
Bitumen is a naturally-occurring organic byproduct of decomposed organic materials used by humans for many very useful things for the past 40,000 years.
The Ancient History and Archaeology of Cyrus,...
The Achaemenids were the ruling dynasty of Cyrus the Great and his family over the Persian empire, from 550-330 BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great.
Who doesn't want to be an archaeologist when...
What kind of real-life career choices do I have with a degree in archaeology?
What was Life in Europe Like Before Farming?
The Mesolithic period in European history includes the history of the complex hunter-gatherers who developed the technology to cultivate crops.
Did the Aztecs Really Think Cortes was the...
The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, is one of the most famous pre-Columbian deity and his cult was widespread in many Mesoamerican cultures.
Three Cultural Groups which Combined to Make...
A military and political pact formed by the Aztec of Tenochtitlan and other two cities of the Valley of Mexico. This is when the Aztec Empire began.
The Secret Innovations and Inventions of...
Ancient farming methods used by farmers throughout the world varied quite a bit. Farmers developed many ways to maintain soils, ward off frost and freeze cycles and protect their crops from animals. On this page you'll find core concept definitions, articles on examples of archaeological research into ancient farming, detailed examination of some special farming techniques and bibliographies of related topics.
Oasis Theory
The Oasis Theory is a core concept in archaeology, referring to one of the main hypotheses about the origins of agriculture.
Who Made the Fabulous South American Moche Pots?
The Moche culture was a South American society, whose sites were located along the arid coast of what is now Peru between 100 and 800 AD.
All About the Science of Flax: Ancient...
The history of the domestication of flax is a long one, with the cultivators picking several different traits to nurture over the course of some 5,000 years.
What Alchemy Did it Take to Make Medieval...
Damascus steel, the legendary steel blade scimitar of the Islamic side in the Crusades, was a formidable piece of weaponry for the middle ages. Modern science has given us new insights into how this iron metal was forged, and why this useful technology became lost.
Cultural Evolution
Cultural evolution is the theory that culture changes over time as an adaptive response to stimulus.
Important Facts You Should Know About...
A few important facts about Neandertals, part of an intensive study guide about these human ancestors. Page 2.
When was the Common Bean Domesticated? And Who...
The common bean comes in a multitude of colors shapes and sizes, and as you've no doubt been told, they're really good for you. They are an American domesticate, and their domestication history is an interesting one...
Multiregional Hypothesis
The Multiregional Hypothesis argues that our earliest hominid ancestors radiated out from Africa and Homo sapiens evolved from several different groups of Homo erectus in several places throughout the world.
Did the Ancient Inca Keep Their Records in...
The ancient Inca empire ruled much of South America when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th century AD, and they did it all without a written language. But did they?
Ancient Maya Bloodletting Rituals
Bloodletting rituals and sacrifices were a widespread practice among the ancient people of Mesoamerica.
Cultural Resource Management
Cultural Resource Management is, essentially, a process by which the protection and management of the multitudinous but scarce elements of cultural heritage are given some consideration in a modern world with an expanding population and changing needs.
A Beginner's Introduction to the Islamic...
The Islamic Civilization is in reality a mosaic of wide variety of cultures, from North Africa to the western periphery of the Pacific Ocean, and from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa.
If you could be a Viking, would you be a...
Viking society was highly stratified, with three distinct classes, from slave to aristocracy; and clearly defined professions that described life.
What Major Thoroughfare Did Darius the Great...
The Royal Road was a major intercontinental thoroughfare built by the Achaemenid king Darius the Great (521-485 BC), to allow access to their conquered cities.
Did Amelia Earhart Crashland on a Pacific...
The TIGHAR project searching for traces of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan was begun in the 1980s, and the earliest archaeological investigations were focused on Nikumaroro island. Page 2.
What Great Leap Forward does the Levallois...
Levallois is the name archaeologists have given to a distinctive flint knapping technique, which makes up part of the ancient Acheulean and Mousterian artifact assemblages.
What Science Knows about the Culture and...
The rulers of the Inca Empire were known known as the 'capac', and there are 12 known leaders of the Inca Empire, led by the founder Manco Capac. Page 2.
Clovis May Not Have Been First in the Americas,...
Clovis refers to mobile big game hunters who roamed the Americas hunting elephants and bison for a very brief time 12,000 years ago.
Who were the Ancient Mississippians?
The Mississippian culture is what archaeologists call the precolumbian horticulturalists and mound builders, who were spread across the American midwest and southeast, between about AD 1000-1550.
How Hunter-Gatherers Lived Off the Land
Hunter gatherers is the name anthropologists have given to people who rely on a combined living of hunting game and gathering root vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Hunting and gathering was the lifestyle of all human beings until the invention of agriculture about 8000 years ago; and, to state it simply, hunter-gatherers hunt game and collect plant foods.
Tlaloc, the Aztec Rain God
Tlaloc, the rain god, was one of the most important gods in Aztec religion
Myth-busting About Arrowheads
Arrowheads are often the subject of a number of myths, legends and misconceptions; here is a description of the top myths and the top unknown facts.
What Graduate Students Should Know about...
A letter of intent addressed to each graduate school you apply to is your opportunity to show your strengths and that you recognize your weaknesses.
Top 10 Ancient American Civilizations
The continents of North and South America were 'discovered' by the European civilizations in the late 15th century AD, but their civilizations were vast and complex long before the first European landed. The following are a taste of the complexity of the civilizations of ancient America.
What Were the Rules of the Oldest Known Sport...
The Mesoamerican ball game was an exciting, dangerous game played by most cultures in central America.
Ancient Art Sculpture on a Very Grand Scale
Megalithic structures are immense collections of stone, earth and wood, some of which were built during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods of Europe.
Who Were the First Farmers of Europe and How...
The Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) is the name given by German archaeologist F. Klopfleisch in 1884 to the first true farming communities in central Europe.
Mayan Economics
The Mayan civilization had an extensive economic system based on trade and agriculture. Here are some details of that system.
Was the Upper Paleolithic the Height of...
The Upper Paleolithic period saw great changes in the world as Homo sapiens became the only hominid running around on our planet.
Why Did Shihuangdi Need a Terracotta Army?
The exquisite terracotta army of the first Qin Dynasty ruler Shihuangdi represents the emperor’s ability to control the resources of the newly unified China, and his attempt to recreate and maintain that empire in the afterlife.
What Are the Major Plant Processing Pathways...
Most plants fall into three groups, based on their chemical makeup: C4, C3, and CAM; archaeologists are particularly interested in C3 and C4 plants. Here's why.
Characteristics of Ancient Civilizations
Archaeologists recognize that in some cases, in some places, at some times, simple societies for one reason and another morph into more and more complex societies, and some become civilizations.
How Long Have Horses Been Our Pards?
The history of the domesticated horse (Equus caballus) is complex, the results of the spread of this marvelous creature throughout the world.
Learn All About the Ancient Mesopotamian City...
The Mesopotamian city of Ur, known as Tell al-Muqayyar, was an important Sumerian city state between about 2025-1738 BC.
What Archaeologists Have Learned about the City...
Jericho (also called Tell es-Sultan) is the name of tell situated on an ancient lake bed plain in what is known as the West Bank, in the territory belonging to Palestine.
The Amazing History of American Corn
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What Can a 3rd Century Roman Shipwreck Tell Us...
The Roman corbita Iulia Felix was shipwrecked in the Adriatic Sea in the 2nd or 3rd century AD; its archaeology has revealed much about the Roman glass industry
Natufian Period
The Natufian culture is the name given to the sedentary hunter-gatherers living in the Levant region of the near east between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago.
Capacocha Ceremony
The capacocha ceremony is the name of an Incan ritual, which involved the sacrifice of children, as reported in historical chronicles and evidenced archaeologically.
How Did All the Little Piggies Get to Market?
Pigs (Sus scrofa) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent about 11,000 years ago, but that's not the only place humans changed wild animals into a nicely behaved, edible food crop.
Why Would Anybody Domesticate a Goat?
Beginning about 10,500 years ago, Neolithic people started keeping goats, for their milk, meat, dung, wool... but maybe not their sweet natures.
The ancient Inca controlled their empire just...
The Inca road system included some 25,000 miles of roads, bridges, tunnels and causeways: it was an essential part of the success of the Inca Empire.
Was the Persian Garden at Pasargadae a model...
The Persian garden at Pasargadae is one of the earliest known gardens in the world, and is thought to be the model for the Biblical Garden of Eden.
Alexander the Great's Greatest Idea: A...
The Library of Alexandria was Alexander the Great's dream of scholarly pursuits, housed in his capital city on the Nile Delta of Egypt. Happy Holidays!
Ochre
The natural yellow-red-brown pigment known as ochre was humankind's first paint pot, used by our hominid ancestors nearly 300,000 years ago.
What You Need to Know About the Early Stone Age
The Lower Paleolithic period (2.7 million to 200,000 years ago) is the first archaeology, that is to say, that period when the first evidence of what scientists consider human behaviors occurred.
An Illustrated History of Glass
Glass is a transparent hard substance created by the application of enormous amounts of heat to sand or quartz. Nature's glass is made by volcanic action, superheating and creating the substance called obsidian.
Where Did Ancient Long Distant Travelers Spend...
Any ancient road worth its salt had roadside inns for the weary travelers. Archaeological evidence of way stations and posting houses are at least 2,500 years old.
Who Were the Vikings, Anyway?
The Vikings were a farming culture, who originated in Scandinavia about the 4th century AD, and began to spread out and conquer the Europe in the 9th century AD. They were mostly defeated or subsumed into other cultures by the 13th century AD.
History of Rice, Part One
Archaeology has traced the history of rice to nearly 12,000 years ago.
What is the first tool ever made by humans?
Acheulean handaxes are a type of stone tool made by our earliest hominid ancestors.
Post-Processual Archaeology
Post-Processual Archaeology is...
Calpulli
The Calpulli was the basic unit of social organization in the Aztec empire
Aztec Religion
The Aztecs had a complex set of beliefs, ceremonies and gods, each one overlooking an aspect of human life...
What Culture First Domesticated the Cotton Plant?
Refer to this page to learn more about the origin of cotton domestication and cultivation
Important Facts about the Olmec
Facts about the Olmec concerning their colossal heads of stone, their written language, their rituals, their artwork. Page 3.
Who Were the Aztecs and Where Did They Live?
Aztecs are the collective name given to seven Chichimec tribes of northern Mexico
Abu Hureyra (Syria)
Abu Hureyra is the ruins of an ancient settlement, located on the south side of the Euphrates valley of northern Syria, where the earliest evidence of cultivated plants has been identified, some 11,000 radiocarbon years before the present.
Artifacts of the Royal Cemetery of Ur
The bull-headed lyre discovered at the Royal Cemetery of Ur likely belonged to a musician, buried with one of the retainers in an elite burial.
Guide to Pre-Clovis
Pre-Clovis is the name archaeologists have given to the oldest and now fairly well-established human occupations of the Americas.
Aztec Sacrifices
The Aztecs, or more properly the Mexica, practiced several different types of ritual sacrifice to secure the benevolence of the gods.
Aztec Weapons and Warfare, the Macuahuitl
The macuahuitl is a Nahua term referring to an offensive weapon used by the Aztecs in combat. It is sometimes called a sword even it this tool bears no resemblance with the European sword....
What is the Importance of the Maya Book Known...
The Popol Vuh, often dubbed the Bible of the Maya, is a colonial document which narrates the creation myth of the Maya Quiché of Guatemala and the Story of the Hero Twins
Sedentism
Sedentism is the term archaeologists use to describe the process of settling down.
Lucy (Hominid at AL 288, Ethiopia)
Lucy is the name of the nearly complete skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis, found in 1974 at AL 288, a site in the Hadar archaeological region on the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia.
Aztlán, The Mythical Homeland of the...
Aztlan is the mythical homeland from which the Aztec/Mexica migrated to the Valley of Mexico in the 13th century.
Mysterious Artworks in the Atacama Desert of...
There are over 5,000 prehistoric geoglyphs in the Atacama Desert, and like the Nazca lines, they are mysterious, beautiful and awe-inspiring. Although we can't know the entire reason they were built, researcher Luis Briones believes they are part sign post and part story-telling along a transportation network in an ancient form of combined religious and commercial travel.
Mousterian
The Mousterian industry is an ancient Middle Stone Age method of making stone tools, associated with our hominid relatives the Neanderthals in Europe and both Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis in Africa.
Chinampa - Floating Gardens
Chinampa systems are a type of American traditional agriculture that has been practiced for at least 1,000 years
What Is Stratigraphy?
In archaeology, the study of stratigraphy involves looking at the geological and archaeological layers that make up an archaeological deposit to better understand the processes that created the site.
Angkor or Khmer Empire Ruled Southeast Asia...
The Angkor Civilization (or Khmer Civilization) is the name given to an important civilization of southeast Asia, including all of Cambodia and southeastern Thailand and northern Vietnam
The Collapse of Angkor
The end of the Khmer Empire (or Angkor civilization) came about as a direct result of the civilization's inability to adapt to an extended drought brought about by climate change.
The Richest Viking Ship Burial Yet Discovered -...
The Oseberg is a Viking boat-grave which was excavated in Norway in 1904, the elite grave of two adult women, who died about 1200 years ago.
What ancient people could do with a little...
The term textiles includes cloth, baskets, sandals, nets, string, cords--anything made of natural fibers. Textiles are very old indeed!
Sacred Cenote (Well of the Sacrifices)
Chichen Itza - Sacred Cenote - A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 19.
The City of Osiris Taposiris Magna Was Beloved...
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Need Ideas for an Archaeology Paper? Try These...
The hardest thing a student does is pick a research paper topic. Archaeology, the study of a million years of human behavior, is an excellent starting place.
The Rise and Fall of the Minoan Civilization
We don't really know what the Minoans called themselves--the ancient early Bronze Age culture in Greece was named for the legendary King Minos.
Tezcatlipoca
Tezcatlipoca was the Aztec god of night, north direction and patron deity of Aztec kings
What Connects Llamas and Alpacas, Vicunas and...
Llamas and alpacas are two different species of camel in South America, both domesticated in about the same location and time in the Andean highlands.
The Bering Land Bridge, Peopling America, and...
The Bering Land Bridge allowed human population into the Americas some 15,000 years ago: and scholars suggest it may partly regulate global climates.
Despite Santa's Reputation, Reindeer are Still...
Reindeer, or caribou, were first domesticated about 3000 years ago--much later than most other animal domesticates. Why that should be is an interesting puzzle.
Guide to the Châtelperronian
The Chatelperronian period ca 40,000-33,000 years ago, is usually associated with Neanderthals, and bears evidence of some kind of interaction with African newcomers to Europe.
What Did the Rosetta Stone Tell Us? Classic...
The Rosetta stone is a block of dark granite found in Egypt in 1799, that literally transformed modern understanding of 3,000 years of Egyptian history.
Where Are the Ruins of the Famed Kilwa Kisiwani?
On a small island off the coast of Tanzania lies the site of Kilwa Kisiwani, also called Kilwa, the most important of about thirty-five trading sites on the Indian Ocean during the 11th through 16th centuries AD.
Archaeology is the Study of ... What?
What is Archaeology? The study of archaeology has been defined in a number of silly and serious ways. Here's a collection of pithy quotes from archaeologists and non-archaeologists.
Indus Civilization Timeline and Description
The Indus is one of the oldest societies we know of, including over 2600 known archaeological sites located along the Indus and Sarasvati rivers.
Processual Archaeology
Processual Archaeology is the study of process, that is to say, investigations of the way humans do things, and the way things decay.
What is the Evidence for a 6th Century Fog...
The dust veil of AD 536 was a period of a year to 18 months when the world experienced some kind of calamity, and historic records and dendrochronological records from around the world hold the evidence.
The Ancient Maya or Mayans?
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Great Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe)
Great Zimbabwe is an important African Iron Age site, one of hundreds of such sites in Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa dated between the 10th and 15th centuries AD.
A Thousand Years of African Kingdoms and the...
In Africa, unlike the Europe and Asia, the Iron Age is not prefaced by a Bronze or Copper Age, but rather all the metals came at once.
Chaac
Chaac, was the Mayan god of rain, water and lightning. His origins are very ancient and he was worshiped all over the Maya area...
What Does the Term 'Material Culture' Mean?
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Olmec Timeline and Definition
A guide to the Olmec civilization, including timelines, important sites, important facts, subsistence and settlement, burning issues, and a bibliography
Pit Houses: Warm in the Winters and Cool in the...
A pit house (also spelled pithouse) is a type of dwelling that was excavated partly into the earth, from a few inches to more than three feet.
How Do Archaeologists Know When Sunflowers Were...
Sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) are native to the American continents; prehistoric use of sunflowers included ornamental and ceremonial use, as well as for food and flavoring.
Hopewell Civilization
The Hopewell civilization (also called Adena in some regions) is a prehistoric culture of the American middle west.
Oracle Bones
Oracle bones are a type of artifact found in archaeological sites from the Shang Dynasty in China.
Exchange Systems
Exchange systems are the cultural bones of most societies. How we as people exchange goods and services determines much about how our societies work. Archaeological evidence of exchange systems is at once difficult to find and difficult to interpret: but we must try.
Who were the Nasca and why did they draw those...
The Nazca (often spelled Nasca in archaeological texts) civilization was located in the Nasca region as defined by the Ica and Grande river drainages, on the southern coast of Peru between about AD 1-750.
Legends of the Maya God of Creation, Itzamna
Itzamna is one of the most important ancient Maya gods. He was considered the god of creation and the inventor of writing, and divination...
Why Were Guinea Pigs Domesticated? (Hint: Not...
Guinea pigs are small rodents domesticated about seven thousand years ago in South American Andes mountains primarily for food, and brought to Europe as pets in the 16th century.
When Did Humans Figure Out How to Run the World...
An assembly of timelines for the world history of ancient cultures and civilizations, spanning from the Stone Age through the Middle Ages.
What Occurred During the Middle Paleolithic...
The Middle Paleolithic period (ca 200,000 to 45,000 years ago or so) is the period during which Archaic humans including Homo sapiens neanderthalensis appeared and flourished all over the world.
The opposite of monocultural agriculture is...
Mixed cropping, also known as inter-cropping or co-cultivation, is a type of agriculture that involves planting two or more of plants simultaneously in the same field.
How Many Times Do You Need to Domesticate Sheep?
The sheep (Ovis aries) is one of the earliest animals ever domesticated, from the mouflon and more than 10,000 years ago.
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