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Archaeology: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
What Is History, Anyway? A Handful of...
Drop in on a collection of quotes from historians--some professional, some decidedly not--trying their hand at defining the dark art of history.
What Does A.D. Mean, Anyway?
The initials A.D. (used with or without periods) is an abbreviation for the Latin
The 10 Most Important Aztec Gods and Goddesses
Learn more about the most important Aztec gods and and the religion of the Aztec people
Capacocha Ceremony
The capacocha ceremony is the name of an Incan ritual, which involved the sacrifice of children, as reported in historical chronicles and evidenced archaeologically.
When Did People Begin Using and Controlling Fire?
The discovery of fire was one of the earliest discoveries of humans. Fire's purposes are multiple, some of which are to add light and heat, to cook plants and animals, to clear forests for planting, to heat-treat stone for making stone tools, to burn clay for ceramic objects.
What Is a Hominin and How Is It Different from...
Learn more about the Homininae subfamily, including Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).
What Can Archaeology Tell Us About Who Aryans...
The Aryan Invasion Myth was developed in the late 19th century to explain the blossoming of the Indus River Civilization; but it stems from a flawed argument and old fashioned racist supremacism.
Where Was the Ancient City of Babylon?
The archaeological site of Babylon was the capital of a small city state of Mesopotamia, named Babylonia, located in what is now Iraq, near the modern town of Hilla.
Is Your Cat Truly Domesticated? According to...
The modern day cat was permanently domesticated about 4000 years ago, in Egypt; but archaeologists say it may have been closer to 10,000 years ago.
Why Don't Archaeologists Use the Term...
Cro-Magnons are what scholars now call Anatomically Modern Humans or Early Modern Humans, mostly because Cro-Magnon refers to to a specific archaeological site which isn't really typical of the rest
Here's How Cattle Came to Be Domesticated -...
The history of the relationship between humans and cattle is a long and varied one, with at least two and perhaps three domestication events.
Did the Ancient Inca Keep Their Records in...
The ancient Inca empire ruled much of South America when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the 16th century AD, and they did it all without a written language. But did they?
Animal Domestication: When and Where It First...
Domestication is the process of genetically adapting an animal or plant to better suit the needs of human beings; this page includes a definition of domestication and a table of domestication dates for animals in the world.
The Top Ten
Short list of the main facts and aspects of Aztec culture
How the Dog Came to Be Domesticated
When and where the partnership of dog and humans first occurred is currently under considerable debate.
What Does the Abbreviation 'BP' Stand for in...
Archaeologists use the term 'BP' to mean 'years before humans began to screw up the atmosphere by testing nuclear devices'.
Interested in a Career in Archaeology? Read...
Have you always dreamed of being an archaeologist, but don't know how to become one? To become an archaeologist takes education, reading, training, and persistence. Here's how you can get started exploring that dream job
What Were the Rules of the Oldest Known Sport...
The Mesoamerican ball game was an exciting, dangerous game played by most cultures in central America.
What Genius Culture First Thought of Fermenting...
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes; and may have been invented nearly 9,000 years ago in China....
The Legend of the Aztec God of War and Sacrifice
Huitzilopochtli, the Aztec god of war and sacrifice, learn more about Aztec mythology and religion
Out of Africa Hypothesis
The Out of Africa or African Replacement Hypothesis argues that every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa.
Tenochtitlan: How a City in a Swamp Became the...
The Aztec culture site called Tenochtitlan was located in a very peculiar place today, in a marsh in the middle of a lake surrounded by mountains--a place now called Mexico City.
Here's How Chickens Became Domesticated
The history of chickens and when they were domesticated is something of a puzzle, but most likely it was about 8,000 years ago in Thailand.
How the Kingdom of Aksum Flourished in Ethiopia
The Kingdom of Aksum (first through sixth centuries AD) was one of the most powerful kingdoms in sub-Saharan Africa, connecting the Roman empire and the rest of the world in the region of the Red Sea.
The Long History of Humans Taming Plants on...
A collection of plant histories, when and where humans domesticated them, with a table of dates and places and links to the stories themselves.
Considering a Career in Archaeology? Read These...
What kind of job can I get in archaeology? Does it pay well? Do you have to work when it's hot? These are the questions that everyone who is thinking about being an archaeologist wants to know.
An Introduction to Seriation
In this step, we use Microsoft Excel to draw us a bar graph of the data from Step 1.
What Society Cultivated Wheat First?
Wheat was one of the very first crops domesticated by our ancestors, some 10,000 years ago in southeastern Turkey.
The Origins of Agriculture Around the World
The history of farming begins some 12,000 years ago, in the hilly flanks of the Zagros Mountains of southwest Asia
Who doesn't want to be an archaeologist when...
What kind of real-life career choices do I have with a degree in archaeology?
What You've Always Wanted to Know about Otzi...
The Iceman is the name of a 5,300-year-old human body discovered high in the Swiss/Italian Alps in 1991.
Tlaloc, the Aztec Rain God
Tlaloc, the rain god, was one of the most important gods in Aztec religion
Aztec Creation Myth
The story of how the Aztecs believe world originated, passed down by oral tradition, incorporating gods and myths adopted and modified from other tribes.
Did the Aztecs Really Think Cortes was the...
The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, is one of the most famous pre-Columbian deity and his cult was widespread in many Mesoamerican cultures.
The Civilization that Brought Us Angkor Wat...
The Khmer Empire is the name of a large and complex civilization which ruled a major chunk of Southeast Asia for five hundred years between 800 and 1300 AD.
Is the history of the Inca written in knotted...
The quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo) is the only known precolumbian information system in South America.
Legends of the Maya God of Creation, Itzamna
Itzamna is one of the most important ancient Maya gods. He was considered the god of creation and the inventor of writing, and divination...
What Else Does Science Know about the Makers of...
The Moche culture were a highly ritualized South American society, who lived along the arid coast of what is now Peru between 100 and 800 AD.
Myth-busting About Arrowheads
Arrowheads are often the subject of a number of myths, legends and misconceptions; here is a description of the top myths and the top unknown facts.
Angkor or Khmer Empire Ruled Southeast Asia...
The Angkor Civilization (or Khmer Civilization) is the name given to an important civilization of southeast Asia, including all of Cambodia and southeastern Thailand and northern Vietnam
Great Zimbabwe, the Great Stone House of the...
Great Zimbabwe is an important African Iron Age site, one of hundreds of such sites in Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa dated between the 10th and 15th centuries AD.
If You Could be a Viking, Would You Be a...
Viking society was highly stratified, with three distinct classes, from slave to aristocracy; and clearly defined professions that described life.
Ochre is the First Pigment Known to Have Been...
The natural yellow-red-brown pigment known as ochre was humankind's first paint pot, used by our hominid ancestors nearly 300,000 years ago.
The Collapse of Angkor
The end of the Khmer Empire (or Angkor civilization) came about as a direct result of the civilization's inability to adapt to an extended drought brought about by climate change.
Some of the Earliest Colonists to America...
The Pacific Coast Migration Model is a theory concerning the original colonization of the Americas that proposes that people entering the continents followed the Pacific coastline
What was Life in Europe Like Before Farming?
The Mesolithic period in European history includes the history of the complex hunter-gatherers who developed the technology to cultivate crops.
How Did All the Little Piggies Get to Market?
Pigs (Sus scrofa) were domesticated in the Fertile Crescent about 11,000 years ago, but that's not the only place humans changed wild animals into a nicely behaved, edible food crop.
What is the Importance of the Maya Book Known...
The Popol Vuh, often dubbed the Bible of the Maya, is a colonial document which narrates the creation myth of the Maya Quiché of Guatemala and the Story of the Hero Twins
When was the Common Bean Domesticated? And Who...
The common bean comes in a multitude of colors shapes and sizes, and as you've no doubt been told, they're really good for you. They are an American domesticate, and their domestication history is an interesting one...
How Ancient Civilizations Used Bitumen (AKA Tar)
Bitumen is a naturally-occurring organic byproduct of decomposed organic materials used by humans for many very useful things for the past 40,000 years.
Who Were the Vikings, Anyway?
The Vikings were a farming culture, who originated in Scandinavia about the 4th century AD, and began to spread out and conquer the Europe in the 9th century AD. They were mostly defeated or subsumed into other cultures by the 13th century AD.
A Beginner's Introduction to the Islamic...
The Islamic Civilization is in reality a mosaic of wide variety of cultures, from North Africa to the western periphery of the Pacific Ocean, and from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa.
Ancient Maya Bloodletting Rituals
Bloodletting rituals and sacrifices were a widespread practice among the ancient people of Mesoamerica.
What Science Knows about the Culture and...
The Inca were the largest pre-hispanic empire of South America when it was 'discovered' by the Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century AD.
Learn All about Maya Civilization with This...
Facts about the economics, politics, warfare, rituals, architecture, and other interesting things to know about the Maya Civilization. Page 3.
The Very Opposite of Monocultural Agriculture...
Mixed cropping, also known as inter-cropping or co-cultivation, is a type of agriculture that involves planting two or more of plants simultaneously in the same field.
Aztec Origins
This page describes the mythical and archaeological origins of the Aztec people, and the founding of their capital city of Tenochtitlán
The Secret Innovations and Inventions of...
Ancient farming methods used by farmers throughout the world varied quite a bit. Farmers developed many ways to maintain soils, ward off frost and freeze cycles and protect their crops from animals. On this page you'll find core concept definitions, articles on examples of archaeological research into ancient farming, detailed examination of some special farming techniques and bibliographies of related topics.
A Beginner's Guide to the Stone Age
A definition and chronology of the Stone Age (more commonly known to scholars as the Paleolithic era), which in human prehistory is the name given to the period between about 2.5 million and 20,000 years ago.
Cultural Resource Management
Cultural Resource Management is, essentially, a process by which the protection and management of the multitudinous but scarce elements of cultural heritage are given some consideration in a modern world with an expanding population and changing needs.
What Connects Llamas and Alpacas, Vicunas and...
Llamas and alpacas are two different species of camel in South America, both domesticated in about the same location and time in the Andean highlands.
Aztec Religion
The Aztecs had a complex set of beliefs, ceremonies and gods, each one overlooking an aspect of human life...
Which Intrepid Sailors First Settled the...
The Lapita culture or Lapita cultural complex is the founding cultural group who settled Melanesia and the Pacific islands between 3600 and 2900 years ago.
What Did Precolumbian South Americans Use the...
Spondylus is a warm water mollusc, and during the European Neolithic and much of South American prehistory, they had special cultural significance.
How Long Have Horses Been Our Pards?
The history of the domesticated horse (Equus caballus) is complex, the results of the spread of this marvelous creature throughout the world.
Oasis Theory
The Oasis Theory is a core concept in archaeology, referring to one of the main hypotheses about the origins of agriculture.
The Types and Characteristics of Ancient...
Monumental architecture refers to large man-made structures of stone or earth.
The Amazing History of American Corn
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An Aztec God of Fertility and Patron of Warriors
Tonatiuh (pronounced Toh-nah-tee-uh) was the Aztec sun god. This deity had both a positive and negative aspect.
History of Rice, Part One
Archaeology has traced the history of rice to nearly 12,000 years ago.
Kuelap's Little Known Enormous 1500 Year Old...
Kuelap was a Chachapoya ceremonial center between 9th-15th centuries AD, and it included the largest prehistoric stone building in South America.
What Did the Rosetta Stone Tell Us? Classic...
The Rosetta stone is a block of dark granite found in Egypt in 1799, that literally transformed modern understanding of 3,000 years of Egyptian history.
Archaeology is the Study of ... What?
What is Archaeology? The study of archaeology has been defined in a number of silly and serious ways. Here's a collection of pithy quotes from archaeologists and non-archaeologists.
Chaac
Chaac, was the Mayan god of rain, water and lightning. His origins are very ancient and he was worshiped all over the Maya area...
Why Would Anybody Domesticate a Goat?
Beginning about 10,500 years ago, Neolithic people started keeping goats, for their milk, meat, dung, wool... but maybe not their sweet natures.
Aztec Sacrifices
The Aztecs, or more properly the Mexica, practiced several different types of ritual sacrifice to secure the benevolence of the gods.
Mayan Economics
The Mayan civilization had an extensive economic system based on trade and agriculture. Here are some details of that system.
Tezcatlipoca
Tezcatlipoca was the Aztec god of night, north direction and patron deity of Aztec kings
Was the Upper Paleolithic the Height of...
The Upper Paleolithic period saw great changes in the world as Homo sapiens became the only hominid running around on our planet.
Clovis May Not Have Been First in the Americas,...
Clovis refers to mobile big game hunters who roamed the Americas hunting elephants and bison for a very brief time 12,000 years ago.
Top 10 Ancient American Civilizations
The continents of North and South America were 'discovered' by the European civilizations in the late 15th century AD, but their civilizations were vast and complex long before the first European landed. The following are a taste of the complexity of the civilizations of ancient America.
Three Cultural Groups which Combined to Make...
A military and political pact formed by the Aztec of Tenochtitlan and other two cities of the Valley of Mexico. This is when the Aztec Empire began.
Pharaoh Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri
Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri (also spelled Deir el-Bahari) is one of the most beautiful temples in Egypt, built by the architects of Queen Hatshepsut, a pharaoh of the New Kingdom.
Sacred Cenote (Well of the Sacrifices)
Chichen Itza - Sacred Cenote - A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 19.
Need Ideas for an Archaeology Paper? Try These...
The hardest thing a student does is pick a research paper topic. Archaeology, the study of a million years of human behavior, is an excellent starting place.
Macuahuitl - The Wooden Sword of Aztec...
The macuahuitl is a Nahua term referring to an offensive weapon used by the Aztecs in combat. It is sometimes called a sword even if this tool bears no resemblance with the European sword.
A Beginner's Guide to the Persian Empire
At its height about 500 BC, the Persian empire had conquered Asia as far as the Indus River, Greece, and North Africa including what is now Egypt and Libya.
Cultural Evolution
Cultural evolution is the theory that culture changes over time as an adaptive response to stimulus.
Who were the Ancient Mississippians?
The Mississippian culture is what archaeologists call the precolumbian horticulturalists and mound builders, who were spread across the American midwest and southeast, between about AD 1000-1550.
Here Are the Basic Facts and Timeline of the...
After classical Egypt, the first civilization in Africa was called Kush or Kushite, located on the third cataract of the Nile River in what is now the Sudan.
Important Facts You Should Know About...
A few important facts about Neandertals, part of an intensive study guide about these human ancestors. Page 2.
Maya Blue: A Gorgeous Turquoise Mix of...
Maya Blue is what scholars call a pigment used by the different Maya polities to decorate pots, sculpture and murals, made up of a combination of materials and mixed in incense burners.
What Graduate Students Should Know about...
A letter of intent addressed to each graduate school you apply to is your opportunity to show your strengths and that you recognize your weaknesses.
Learn All About the Dating Techniques Used to...
A short course on the various dating methods used in archaeological science over the centuries. Part 1: Relative Dating
Temple of the Warriors
Chichen Itza - Temple of the Warriors - A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 7.
Why Were Guinea Pigs Domesticated? (Hint: Not...
Guinea pigs are small rodents domesticated about seven thousand years ago in South American Andes mountains primarily for food, and brought to Europe as pets in the 16th century.
Aztlán, The Mythical Homeland of the...
Aztlan is the mythical homeland from which the Aztec/Mexica migrated to the Valley of Mexico in the 13th century.
The Ancient Maya or Mayans?
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Heinrich Schliemann and the Discovery of Troy
Heinrich Schliemann, that quintessential archaeologist of the 19th century, claimed to have discovered the real site of Troy. But did he?
What Role Did Sailing Play in the International...
The Maritime Silk Road refers to the vast international networks of ships and trading ports, connecting Africa, Asia and India beginning about 2,000 years BC.
Who Were the First People Who Arrived in the...
Pre-Clovis is the name archaeologists have given to the oldest and now fairly well-established human occupations of the Americas.
Archaeology Equipment: The Tools of the Trade
A photo essay of the tools that archaeologists use during the course of an investigation, before, during and after the excavations.
How Many Times Do You Need to Domesticate Sheep?
The sheep (Ovis aries) is one of the earliest animals ever domesticated, from the mouflon and more than 10,000 years ago.
Why Did Shihuangdi Need a Terracotta Army?
The exquisite terracotta army of the first Qin Dynasty ruler Shihuangdi represents the emperor’s ability to control the resources of the newly unified China, and his attempt to recreate and maintain that empire in the afterlife.
What archaeologists have learned about the Troy...
Hisarlik is the modern name for the ancient site of Troy, located in what is now Turkey.
A Thousand Years of African Kingdoms and the...
In Africa, unlike the Europe and Asia, the Iron Age is not prefaced by a Bronze or Copper Age, but rather all the metals came at once.
How Hunter-Gatherers Lived Off the Land
Hunter gatherers is the name anthropologists have given to people who rely on a combined living of hunting game and gathering root vegetables, nuts, and seeds. Hunting and gathering was the lifestyle of all human beings until the invention of agriculture about 8000 years ago; and, to state it simply, hunter-gatherers hunt game and collect plant foods.
What Alchemy Did it Take to Make Medieval...
Damascus steel, the legendary steel blade scimitar of the Islamic side in the Crusades, was a formidable piece of weaponry for the middle ages. Modern science has given us new insights into how this iron metal was forged, and why this useful technology became lost.
Olmec Timeline and Definition
A guide to the Olmec civilization, including timelines, important sites, important facts, subsistence and settlement, burning issues, and a bibliography
An Illustrated History of Glass
Glass is a transparent hard substance created by the application of enormous amounts of heat to sand or quartz. Nature's glass is made by volcanic action, superheating and creating the substance called obsidian.
Chalchiuhtlicue
Chalchiuhtlicue was the Aztec goddess of running water as well as the patron of navigation and childbirth
Did Amelia Earhart Crashland on a Pacific...
The TIGHAR project searching for traces of Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan was begun in the 1980s, and the earliest archaeological investigations were focused on Nikumaroro island. Page 2.
Caral: The Earliest Civilization in the New World
A collection of sites in the Supe Valley of Peru are proving to be the ancestral source of the Inca and other later civilizations of South and Central America. Caral and the other Supe Valley sites promise to teach us why people choose to become urban dwellers.
Were the Ancient Vikings Really a Bunch of...
The Viking Age was a time of great change on the European continent. The Viking Age traditionally refers to the period in northern Europe between the first Scandinavian raid on England, in AD 793, and ends with the death of Harald Hardrada in 1066, in a failed attempt to attain the English throne.
Letters Buried within a 16th Century Tomb Tell...
The tomb of an elite member of the Joseon Dynasty who died in the 16th century contained 18 well-preserved documents detailing life in medieval Korea.
Post-Processual Archaeology
Post-Processual Archaeology is...
How the Water Management System in the Khmer...
The Khmer Empire, also known as the Angkor civilization, were compelled to manage water through a complex of man-made canals and reservoirs, the result of which was to permanently alter the local hydrology.
The Famous Aztec Calendar Stone Isn't a...
The Aztec Calendar Stone, known more properly as the Aztec Sun Stone, is a basalt sculpture with carvings related to the sun god Tonatiuh and other calendar symbols
Where Are the Ruins of the Famed Kilwa Kisiwani?
On a small island off the coast of Tanzania lies the site of Kilwa Kisiwani, also called Kilwa, the most important of about thirty-five trading sites on the Indian Ocean during the 11th through 16th centuries AD.
The ancient Inca controlled their empire just...
The Inca road system included some 25,000 miles of roads, bridges, tunnels and causeways: it was an essential part of the success of the Inca Empire.
Mehrgarh (Pakistan)
Mehrgarh is a Neolithic (7000-3200 BC) site on the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan, and one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats) in south Asia.
What Are the Major Plant Processing Pathways...
Most plants fall into three groups, based on their chemical makeup: C4, C3, and CAM; archaeologists are particularly interested in C3 and C4 plants. Here's why.
What do silk worms have to do with silk?
The use of the silk worm species Bombyx to produce cloth was invented at least as early as the Longshan period (3500-2000 BC), and perhaps earlier.
What ancient people could do with a little...
The term textiles includes cloth, baskets, sandals, nets, string, cords--anything made of natural fibers. Textiles are very old indeed!
History of Shoes
Shoes are the use of typically organic materials (cloth, plant matter, wood, leather) to protect our feet, and they were likely invented some 40,000 years ago.
The Exotic Lure of Frankincense and Myrrh along...
The Incense Road refers to the hazardous routes through the craggy desert of the Arabian peninsula used to deliver luxury goods to the Mediterranean.
The Vikings had a well-earned reputation for...
Viking raids were a characteristic of the Scandinavian early medieval pirates called the Vikings, particularly during the first 50 years of the Viking Age (~793-850)
Toumaï (Chad)
Toumai is the nickname of Sahelanthropus tchadensis, a hominoid and possible ancestor of the human race from 7 million years ago.
Chalcolithic
The Chalcolithic is the name given to the period in the Near East and Europe after the Neolithic and before the Bronze Age, between about 4500 and 3500 BC.
Wall of Skulls (Tzompantli)
Chichen Itza - Wall of Skulls (Tzompantli) - A Walking Tour of Chichen Itza - Ancient Maya Ruins of Mexico. Page 6.
What Archaeologists Have Learned about the City...
Jericho (also called Tell es-Sultan) is the name of tell situated on an ancient lake bed plain in what is known as the West Bank, in the territory belonging to Palestine.
The Controversy Over Who Invented Tapping Maple...
The first step in making maple syrup is collecting the sap
Lucy (Hominid at AL 288, Ethiopia)
Lucy is the name of the nearly complete skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis, found in 1974 at AL 288, a site in the Hadar archaeological region on the Afar Triangle of Ethiopia.
What You Need to Know About the Early Stone Age
The Lower Paleolithic period (2.7 million to 200,000 years ago) is the first archaeology, that is to say, that period when the first evidence of what scientists consider human behaviors occurred.
Anthropology Defined
Anthropology is the study of human beings; their culture, their behavior, their beliefs, their ways of surviving; but that's just my opinion. Here is a collection of other definitions.
Radiocarbon Dating
Radiocarbon dating is a method used by archaeologist to date organic materials by comparing the amount of Carbon 14 (C14) available in living creatures as a measuring stick.
Pit Houses: Warm in the Winters and Cool in the...
A pit house (also spelled pithouse) is a type of dwelling that was excavated partly into the earth, from a few inches to more than three feet.
Cultural Ecology
Cultural Ecology is an anthropological theory put forward by Julian Steward, that considers adaptation to environment as the paramount driver in cultural change.
Multiregional Hypothesis
The Multiregional Hypothesis argues that our earliest hominid ancestors radiated out from Africa and Homo sapiens evolved from several different groups of Homo erectus in several places throughout the world.
What Culture First Domesticated the Cotton Plant?
Refer to this page to learn more about the origin of cotton domestication and cultivation
Chinampa - Floating Gardens
Chinampa systems are a type of American traditional agriculture that has been practiced for at least 1,000 years
Ancient Art Sculpture on a Very Grand Scale
Megalithic structures are immense collections of stone, earth and wood, some of which were built during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods of Europe.
Tlaltecuhtli
Tlaltecuhtli was the Aztec Earth Goddess, a terrifying being whose monstrous body was turned into the earth after a battle with Quetzalcoatl
BC (or B.C.)
The term B.C. is used by nearly everyone in the United States to mean dates in the Julian Calendar before the birth of Christ, or at least before the date once thought to be that of Christ's birth (the year 0).
Important Facts about the Olmec
Facts about the Olmec concerning their colossal heads of stone, their written language, their rituals, their artwork. Page 3.
Why is an Ancient Trash Pit an Archaeologist's...
A midden is the archaeological term for a trash heap, including food stuff and broken crockery; exhausted stone and metal tools; organic matter and sometimes burials.
Flotation Method
Archaeological flotation involves using water to process soil or feature fill to recover tiny artifacts.
Site Formation Processes
In archaeology, the term Site Formation Processes refers to the events that created an archaeological site.
Ancient Islamic Cities
The earliest cities that belong to the Islamic civilization were built in the Year One AH, or AD 622.
Centeotl
Centeotl was one of the many aspect of the maize god for the Aztec

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