We get it wrong sometimes, we archaeologists, for one reason or another: it's a matter of having crummy, incomplete data, and a constantly improving science. Paviland Cave is an ideal case in point.
William Buckland's Drawing of Paviland Cave. In William Buckland: Reliquiae Diluvianae; or, observations on the organic remains contained in caves, fissures, and diluvial gravel, and on other geological phenomena, attesting the action of an universal deluge. John Murray, London (2. Aufl. 1824, pp. 83 ff)
This drawing of Paviland or Goat's Hole Cave is from William Buckland, the original excavator of the burial known as "the Red Lady". Nearly 200 years ago, Buckland discovered in this cave a burial of a smallish person covered in red ochre, and named it the Red Lady--no doubt, said he, a Roman prostitute or witch. Recent research--benefiting from 200 years of scientific research (including Darwinian theory and radiocarbon dating)--has made clear that rather than a 2,000 year old Roman woman of odd repute, the "Red Lady" was in actuality a 30,000 year old young adult male, of likely elite status.
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