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Bering Strait and the Bering Land Bridge

Entryway into the New World

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Bering Land Bridge, 28,000-18,000 Years Ago

This map shows the outlines of modern Siberia (left) and Alaska (right) with dashed lines. The broader area in darker green (now covered by ocean) represents the Bering land bridge near the end of the last glacial maximum

Wlliam Manley, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado.
Alaska's Shrub Tundra Environment

A photo of Alaska's shrub tundra environment today showing birch shrubs in the foreground and spruce trees scattered around Eight Mile Lake, located in the foothills of the Alaska Range.

Nancy Bigelow, University of Alaska Fairbanks
Arctic Ocean And the Location of the Bering Strait

Arctic Ocean And the Location of the Bering Strait

Base map: Uwe Dedering

The Bering Strait is a waterway that separates Russia from North America. It lies above the Bering Land Bridge, also called Beringia (sometimes misspelled Beringea), a submerged landmass that once connected the Siberian mainland with North America. While Beringia's shape and size while above water is variously described in publications, most scholars would agree the land mass included the Seward Peninsula, as well as existing land areas of northeast Siberia and western Alaska, between the Verkhoyansk Range in Siberia and the Mackenzie River in Alaska. As a waterway, the Bering Strait connects the Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean over the polar ice cap, and eventually the Atlantic Ocean.

The climate of the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) when it was above sea level during the Pleistocene was long thought to have been primarily a herbaceous tundra or steppe-tundra. However, recent pollen studies have shown that during the Last Glacial Maximum (say, between 30,000-18,000 calendar years ago, abbreviated as cal BP), the environment was a mosaic of diverse but cold plant and animal habitats.

Living on the BLB

Whether Beringia was habitable or not at a given time is determined by the sea level and presence of surrounding ice: specifically, whenever the sea level drops about 50 meters (~164 feet) below its present position, the land surfaces. The dates when this happened in the past have been difficult to establish, in part because the BLB is currently mostly underwater and difficult to reach.

Ice cores seem to indicate that most of the Bering Land Bridge was exposed during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (60,000 to 25,000 years ago), connecting Siberia and North America: and the land mass was above sea level but cut off from east and west land bridges during OIS 2 (25,000 to about 18,500 years BP).

Beringian Standstill Hypothesis

By and large, archaeologists believe that the Bering land bridge was the primary entryway for the original colonists into the Americas. About 30 years ago, scholars were convinced that people simply left Siberia, crossed the BLB and entered down through the mid-continental Canadian ice shield through a so-called "ice-free corridor". However, recent investigations indicate the "ice free corridor" was blocked between about 30,000 and 11,500 cal BP. Since the northwest Pacific coast was deglaciated at least as early as 14,500 years BP, many scholars today believe a Pacific coastal route was the primary route for much of the first American colonization.

One theory gaining strength is the Beringian standstill hypothesis, or Beringian Incubation Model (BIM), the proponents of which argue that instead of moving directly from Siberia across the strait and down the Pacific coast, the migrants lived--in fact were trapped--on the BLB for several millennia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Their entry into North America would have been blocked by ice sheets, and their return to Siberia blocked by the glaciers in the Verkhoyansk mountain range.

The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlement to the west of the Bering Land Bridge east of the Verkhoyansk Range in Siberia is the Yana RHS site, a very unusual 30,000 year old site located above the arctic circle. The earliest sites on the east side of the BLB in the Americas are Preclovis in date, with confirmed dates usually no more than 16,000 years cal BP. The Beringian Standstill Hypothesis helps explain that long-standing gap.

Climate Change and the Bering Land Bridge

Although there is lingering debate, pollen studies suggest that the climate of the BLB between about 29,500 and 13,300 cal BP was an arid, cool climate, with grass-herb-willow tundra. There is also some evidence that near the end of the LGM (~21,000-18,000 cal BP), conditions in Beringia deteriorated sharply. At about 13,300 cal BP, when rising sea levels began to flood the bridge, the climate appears to have been wetter, with deeper winter snows and cooler summers.

Sometime between 18,000 and 15,000 cal BP, the bottleneck to the east was broken, which allowed human entrance into the North American continent along the Pacific coast. The Bering Land Bridge was completely inundated by rising sea levels by 10,000 or 11,000 cal BP, and its current level was reached about 7,000 years ago.

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