The bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) has had a complex domestication history written for it over the past twenty years. However, recent DNA research suggests that it was domesticated three times: in Asia, at least 10,000 years ago; in Central America, about 10,000 years ago; and in Africa, about 4,000 years ago. In addition, the bottle gourd's dispersal throughout Polynesia is a key part of evidence supporting the possible Polynesian discovery of the New World, circa 1000 AD.
The bottle gourd is a diploid, monoecious plant of the Cucurbitacea. The plant has thick vines with large white flowers that open only at night. The fruit comes in a large variety of shapes, selected for by their human users. The bottle gourd is primarily grown for its fruit, which when dried forms a woody hollow vessel that is suitable for containing water and food, for fishing floats, for musical instruments and for clothing, among other things. In fact, the fruit itself floats, and bottle gourds with still-viable seeds have been discovered after floating in sea water for more than seven months.
The bottle gourd is native to Africa: wild populations of the plant have recently been discovered in Zimbabwe. Two subspecies, likely representing two separate domestication events, have been identified: Lagenaria siceraria spp. siceraria (in Africa, domesticated some 4,000 years ago) and L. s. spp. asiatica (Asia, domesticated at least 10,000 years ago0.
The likelihood of a third domestication event, in Central America about 10,000 years ago, has been implied from genetic analysis of American bottle gourds (Kistler et al.), Domesticated bottle gourds have been recovered in the Americas at sites such as Guila Naquitz in Mexico by ~10,000 years ago.
Bottle Gourd Dispersals
The earliest dispersal of the bottle gourd into the Americas was long believed by scholars to have occurred from the floating of domesticated fruits across the Atlantic. In 2005, researchers David Erickson and colleagues (among others) argued that bottle gourds, like dogs, had been brought into the Americas with the arrival of Paleoindian hunter-gatherers, at least 10,000 years ago. If true, than the Asian form of the bottle gourd was domesticated at least a couple of thousand years before that. Evidence of that has not been discovered, although domestic bottle gourds from several Jomon period sites on Japan have early dates.
In 2014, researchers Kistler et al. disputed that theory, in part because it would have required the tropical and subtropical bottle gourd to have been planted at the crossing place into the Americas in the Bering Land Bridge region, an area far too cold to support that; and evidence for its presence in the likely entry way into the Americas has yet to be found. Instead Kistler's team looked at DNA from samples in several locales in the Americas between 8,000 BC and 1925 AD (included Guila Naquitz and Quebrada Jaguay) and concluded that Africa is the clear source region of the bottle gourd in the Americas. Kistler et al. suggest that the African bottlegourds were domesticated in the American Neotropics, derived from seeds out of gourds which drifted across the Atlantic.
Later dispersals throughout eastern Polynesia, Hawai'i, New Zealand and the western South American coastal region were likely driven by Polynesian seafaring. New Zealand bottle gourds exhibit features of both subspecies; but since the African subspecies is now believed to have arrived in the Americas after 1500 or so, the establishment of the relationship between the New Zealand microfossils (pollen and phytoliths) and the Americas is newly unclear.
Important Bottle Gourd Sites
AMS radiocarbon dates on bottle gourd rinds are reported after the site name, unless otherwise noted. Note: dates in the literature are recorded as they appear, but are listed in rough chronological order from oldest to youngest.
- Spirit Cave (Thailand), 10000-6000 BC (seeds)
- Azazu (Japan), 9000-8500 BC (seeds)
- Guila Naquitz (Mexico) 10,000-9000 BP (7973-6808 cal BC)
- Torihama (Japan), 8000-6000 cal BP (a rind may be dated ~15,000 bp)
- Awatsu-kotei (Japan), associated date 9600 BP
- Quebrada Jaguay (Peru), 8400 BP
- Windover Bog (Florida, US) 8100 BP
- Coxcatlan Cave (Mexico) 7200 BP (5248-5200 cal BC)
- Paloma (Peru) 6500 BP
- Torihama (Japan), associated date 6000 BP
- Shimo-yakebe (Japan), 5300 cal BP
- Sannai Maruyama (Japan), associated date 2500 BC
- Te Niu (Easter Island), pollen, AD 1450