Shang Dynasty Chronology
- Erlitou (or Xia dynasty) 1850-1600 BC (Erlitou, Xinzhai)
- Early Shang (Erligang) 1600-1435 BC (Erligang, Zhengzhou, Yanshi, Xingyang Dashigu, Anyang)
- Middle Shang 1435-1220 BC (Yanshi)
- Late Shang (Yinxu) 1220-1050 BC
Important advances of the Shang Dynasty are the creation of writing, on oracle bones, bones and turtle shells used to record dreams and public and private events and sacrifices. Ritual bronzes were first created at Erlitou, which may or may not represent the early part of the Shang Dynasty, depending on which scholar you listen to.
Sites of the ShangThe known capital cities of the Shang are Anyang, Ao, Bo, Yinxu and Zhengzhou; other important archaeological sites include Erlitou, Yanshi, Erligang, Zhengzhou, and Sanxingdui.
Allan, Sarah 2007 Erlitou and the Formation of Chinese Civilization: Toward a New Paradigm. The Journal of Asian Studies 66:461-496.
Campbell Roderick B. 2009. Toward a Networks and Boundaries Approach to Early Complex Polities: The Late Shang Case. Current Anthropology 50(6):821-848.
Yuan, Jing and Rowan Flad 2005 New zooarchaeological evidence for changes in Shang Dynasty animal sacrifice. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 24(3):252-270.
Yang, Xiaoneng. 2004. Chinese Archaeology in the Twentieth Century: New Perspectives on China's Past. Yale University Press, New Haven.