The site was first settled during the earliest LBK period, ca. 5400 BC, and was occupied continuously for 450 years. At its maximum, the village consisted of some 40-50 longhouses within an area of some six hectares, with an estimated population of 300-400 people.
Analysis of the ceramics and lithics led researchers to identify five different self-identified clans or lineage groups within the settlement. The groups had different chipped stone tools, different decorations on their ceramics and different architectural elements. the houses of the different clans appear to have been located close to one another in the town.
Burials and Strontium Analysis at Vaihingen
From its earliest occupation, the village was encircled by a flat-bottomed fortification ditch. While undoubtedly built for protection, this ditch was later to be used for burials; other burials were in the village proper. Strontium analysis suggests that 42% of people buried in the ditch were nonlocals, compared to only 18% in town.
Some debate concerning this discrepancy continues, because it is unclear whether the difference in burial ritual is a function of chronology--the ditch was used as long as it was visible--or ethnic. Secondly, some investigation of the isotope signatures of the domestic animals appears to be quite broad, suggesting that the 'extra-locality' observed in the humans may not necessarily be the case.
Vaihingen was excavated in 1994 by Rüdiger Krause.
Bentley RA, Price TD, and Stephan E. 2004. Determining the ‘local’ 87Sr/86Sr range for archaeological skeletons: a case study from Neolithic Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science 31(4):365-375.
Bickle P, and Daniela H. 2007. Moving on: the contribution of isotope studies to the early Neolthic of Central Europe. Antiquity 81(314):1029–1041.
Bogaard A, Krause R, and Strien H-C. 2011. Towards a social geography of cultivation and plant use in an early farming community: Vaihingen an der Enz, south-west Germany. Antiquity 85(328):395-416.